Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French army, was found guilty of treason without substantial evidence. After he was imprisoned, evidence led to another officer being guilty of treason, though he was found not guilty. Dreyfus was retried and was still found guilty, though his sentence was shortened from life to 10 years. Because of public outcry, Dreyfus was pardoned by the president. This blatant case of antisemitism influenced Theodore Herzl to believe that the enlightenment and Jewish emancipation is not sufficient, so he started Political Zionism.
By Henri Meyer - This file comes from Gallica Digital Library and is available under the digital ID bpt6k7161044/f1, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=161140