1291 - 1516
The Mamluks ruled in Egypt and Syria, including Israel. At one point Jews and Christians were persecuted, religious institutions were shut, and they were forced to convert to Islam. Laws were made to demonstrate that Jews and Christians were second-class citizens. The Jews' conditions became better when the Ottomans took over those regions.
By Daniel Hopfer - British Museum, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4107509